Insights from COP-21
The 2015 United Nations' Climate Change Conference was held in Paris, France, from November 30 to December 12, 2015. It was the 21st annual session of the Conference of the Parties (COP-21) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change, the text of which represented a consensus of the representatives of the 196 parties attending the conference. The agreement will become legally binding if joined by at least 55 countries, which together represent at least 55 percent of global greenhouse emissions. Such parties will need to sign the agreement in New York between April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) and April 21, 2017, and also adopt it within their own legal systems (through ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession).
The following three articles include interviews with Observers from key stakeholder groups conducted in December 2015 and January 2016 on behalf of EM by Gary Bramble, a longtime member of EM's Editorial Advisory Committee and past COP Observer.